Oregon Drone Laws (2017)


NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of February 21, 2017

Oregon passed HB 4066, HB 2710, HB 2354, and HB3047. The Oregon Revise Statutes were published in 2015 so many of the updates below are NOT included yet in the 2015 revised statutes. Oregon will be publishing them again in 2017 with the amendments. I attempted to add the amendments from  HB 4066 and HB 3047 into the text below.

Section 164.885

(1) A person commits the crime of endangering aircraft in the first degree if the person knowingly:

. . . . .

(4) As used in this section:

(a) “Aircraft” does not include an unmanned aircraft system as defined in ORS 837.300.

(b) “Restricted access area” means an area of a commercial service airport that is:

(A) Designated as restricted in the airport security program approved by the federal Transportation Security Administration; and

(B) Marked at points of entry with signs giving notice that access to the area is restricted

Section Undefined (Passed as law but waiting on location to where it is to be added between 837.300-390)

Reckless interference with aircraft; penalty. A person commits a Class A violation if the person possesses or controls an unmanned aircraft system and recklessly causes the unmanned aircraft system to:

(1) Direct a laser at an aircraft while the aircraft is in the air;

(2) Crash into an aircraft while the aircraft is in the air; or

(3) Prevent the takeoff or landing of an aircraft.

Section Undefined (Passed as law but waiting on location to where it is to be added between 837.300-390)

Policies and procedures for use of data.

(1) A public body that operates an unmanned aircraft system shall establish policies and procedures for the use, storage, accessing, sharing and retention of data, including but not limited to video and audio recordings, resulting from the operation of the unmanned aircraft system.

(2) The public body shall post the following information on the public body’s website or otherwise make the following information available to the public:

(a) The policies and procedures established under this section.

(b) The text of ORS 192.501.

(3) The policies and procedures established under this section must include:

(a) The length of time data will be retained by the public body.

(b) Specifications for third party storage of data, including handling, security and access to the data by the third party.

(c) A policy on disclosure of data through intergovernmental agreements.

Section 837.300

(1) “Aircraft” has the meaning given that term in ORS 836.005.

(2) “Law enforcement agency” means an agency that employs peace officers, as defined in ORS 133.005, or that prosecutes offenses.

(3) “Public body” has the meaning given that term in ORS 174.109.

(4) “Unmanned aircraft system” means an unmanned flying machine, commonly known as a drone, and its associated elements, including communication links and the components that control the machine.

(5) “Warrant” means a warrant issued under ORS 133.525 to 133.703

 

837.310 Restrictions; exceptions. 

(1) Except as otherwise provided in ORS 837.310 to 837.345, a law enforcement agency may not operate an unmanned aircraft system, acquire information through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system or disclose information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system.

(2) Any image or other information that is acquired through the use of an unmanned aircraft system by a law enforcement agency in violation of ORS 837.310 to 837.345, and any evidence derived from that image or information:

(a) Is not admissible in, and may not be disclosed in, a judicial proceeding, administrative proceeding, arbitration proceeding or other adjudicatory proceeding; and

(b) May not be used to establish reasonable suspicion or probable cause to believe that an offense has been committed. [2013 c.686 §2; 2015 c.315 §2]

 

837.320 Authorized use upon issuance of warrant; exigent circumstances. 

(1) A law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system, acquire information through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, or disclose information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, if:

(a) A warrant is issued authorizing use of an unmanned aircraft system; or

(b) The law enforcement agency has probable cause to believe that a person has committed a crime, is committing a crime or is about to commit a crime, and exigent circumstances exist that make it unreasonable for the law enforcement agency to obtain a warrant authorizing use of an unmanned aircraft system.

(2) A warrant authorizing the use of an unmanned aircraft system must specify the period for which operation of the unmanned aircraft system is authorized. In no event may a warrant provide for the operation of an unmanned aircraft system for a period of more than 30 days. Upon motion and good cause shown, a court may renew a warrant after the expiration of the 30-day period. [2013 c.686 §3; 2015 c.315 §3]

 

837.330 Written consent. 

A law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system for the purpose of acquiring information about an individual, or about the individual’s property, if the individual has given written consent to the use of an unmanned aircraft system for those purposes. [2013 c.686 §4; 2015 c.315 §4]

837.335 Search and rescue; use in emergencies. 

(1) A law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system, acquire information through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, or disclose information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, for the purpose of search and rescue activities, as defined in ORS 404.200.

(2) A law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system, acquire information through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, or disclose information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, for the purpose of assisting an individual in an emergency if:

(a) The law enforcement agency reasonably believes that there is an imminent threat to the life or safety of the individual, and documents the factual basis for that belief; and

(b) Not more than 48 hours after the emergency operation begins, an official of the law enforcement agency files a sworn statement with the circuit court that describes the nature of the emergency and the need for use of an unmanned aircraft system.

(3) A law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system, acquire information through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, or disclose information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, during a state of emergency that is declared by the Governor under ORS chapter 401 if:

(a) The unmanned aircraft system is used only for the purposes of preserving public safety, protecting property or conducting surveillance for the assessment and evaluation of environmental or weather related damage, erosion or contamination; and

(b) The unmanned aircraft system is operated only in the geographical area specified in a proclamation pursuant to ORS 401.165 (5). [2013 c.686 §5; 2015 c.315 §5]

 

837.340 Criminal investigations. 

(1) A law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system, acquire information through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, or disclose information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, for the purpose of reconstruction of a specific crime scene or accident scene, or similar physical assessment, related to a specific criminal investigation.

(2) The period that a law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system under this section may not exceed five days for the purpose of reconstruction of a specific crime scene, or similar physical assessment, related to a specific criminal investigation.

837.345 Training. 

(1) A law enforcement agency may operate an unmanned aircraft system for the purpose of training in:

(a) The use of unmanned aircraft systems; and

(b) The acquisition of information through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system.

(2) Any image or other information that is acquired through the use of an unmanned aircraft system by a law enforcement agency under this section, and any evidence derived from that image or information:

(a) Is not admissible in, and may not be disclosed in, a judicial proceeding, administrative proceeding, arbitration proceeding or other adjudicatory proceeding; and

(b) May not be used to establish reasonable suspicion or probable cause to believe that an offense has been committed.

 

837.360 Restrictions; civil penalties; registration; fees; rules. 

(1) A public body may not operate an unmanned aircraft system in the airspace over this state without registering the unmanned aircraft system with the Oregon Department of Aviation.

(2) The Oregon Department of Aviation may impose a civil penalty of up to $10,000 against a public body that violates subsection (1) of this section.

(3) Evidence obtained by a public body through the use of an unmanned aircraft system in violation of subsection (1) of this section is not admissible in any judicial or administrative proceeding and may not be used to establish reasonable suspicion or probable cause to believe that an offense has been committed.

(4) The Oregon Department of Aviation shall establish a registry of unmanned aircraft systems operated by public bodies and may charge a fee sufficient to reimburse the department for the maintenance of the registry.

(5) The Oregon Department of Aviation shall require the following information for registration of an unmanned aircraft system:

(a) The name of the public body that owns or operates the unmanned aircraft system.

(b) The name and contact information of the individuals who operate the unmanned aircraft system.

(c) Identifying information for the unmanned aircraft system as required by the department by rule.

(6) A public body that registers one or more unmanned aircraft systems under this section shall provide an annual report to the Oregon Department of Aviation that:

(a) Summarizes the frequency of use of the unmanned aircraft systems by the public body

during the preceding calendar year;

(b) Summarizes the purposes for which the unmanned aircraft systems have been used by the public body during the preceding calendar year; and

(c) Indicates how the public can access the policies and procedures established under section 7 of this 2016 Act.

(7) The State Aviation Board may adopt all rules necessary for the registration of unmanned aircraft systems in Oregon that are consistent with federal laws and regulations.

Section 9 of HB4066 said:

(1) Section 7 of this 2016 Act and the amendments to ORS 837.360 by section 8 of this 2016 Act become operative on January 1, 2017.

(2) A public body may take any action before the operative date specified in subsection (1) of this section that is necessary to enable the public body to exercise, on and after the operative date specified in subsection (1) of this section, all the duties, functions and powers conferred on the public body by section 7 of this 2016 Act and the amendments to ORS 837.360 by section 8 of this 2016 Act.

837.365 Weaponized unmanned aircraft systems. 

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, a person may not intentionally, knowingly or recklessly operate or cause to be operated an unmanned aircraft system that is capable of firing a bullet or projectile or otherwise operate or cause to be operated an unmanned aircraft system in a manner that causes the system to function as a dangerous weapon as defined in ORS 161.015.

(2)

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this subsection, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class A misdemeanor.
(b) If the person intentionally, knowingly or recklessly operates an unmanned aircraft system to fire a bullet or projectile or otherwise operates an unmanned aircraft system in a manner that causes the system to function as a dangerous weapon as defined in ORS 161.015, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class C felony.
(c) If the person intentionally, knowingly or recklessly operates an unmanned aircraft system to fire a bullet or projectile or otherwise operates an unmanned aircraft system in a manner that causes the system to function as a dangerous weapon as defined in ORS 161.015, and the operation of the unmanned aircraft system causes serious physical injury to another person as both terms are defined in ORS 161.015, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class B felony.

(3) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply if:

(a) The person uses the unmanned aircraft system to release, discharge, propel or eject a nonlethal projectile for purposes other than to injure or kill persons or animals;
(b) The person uses the unmanned aircraft system for nonrecreational purposes in compliance with specific authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration;
(c) The person notifies the Oregon Department of Aviation, the Oregon State Police and any other agency that issues a permit or license for the activity requiring the use of the unmanned aircraft system of the time and location at which the person intends to use an unmanned aircraft system that is capable of releasing, discharging, propelling or ejecting a projectile at least five days before the person uses the system;
(d) If the person intends to use an unmanned aircraft system that is capable of releasing, discharging, propelling or ejecting a projectile in an area open to the public, the person provides reasonable notice to the public of the time and location at which the person intends to use the unmanned aircraft system; and
(e) The person maintains a liability insurance policy in an amount not less than $1 million that covers injury resulting from use of the unmanned aircraft system.

(4) The notification requirement of subsection (3)(c) of this section does not apply to:

(a) A career school licensed under ORS 345.010 to 345.450;
(b) A community college as defined in ORS 341.005;
(c) An education service district as defined in ORS 334.003;
(d) The Oregon Health and Science University;
(e) A public university listed in ORS 352.002; or
(f) An institution that is exempt from ORS 348.594 to 348.615 under ORS 348.597 (2).

(5) Notwithstanding subsection (3) of this section, a person may not use an unmanned aircraft system that is capable of releasing, discharging, propelling or ejecting a projectile for purposes of crowd management.

837.375 Interference with an unmanned aircraft system; unauthorized control. 

In addition to any other remedies allowed by law, a person who intentionally interferes with, or gains unauthorized control over, an unmanned aircraft system licensed by the Federal Aviation Administration, or operated by the Armed Forces of the United States as defined in ORS 352.313, an agency of the United States or a federal, state or local law enforcement agency, is liable to the owner of the unmanned aircraft system in an amount of not less than $5,000. The court shall award reasonable attorney fees to a prevailing plaintiff in an action under this section.

837.380 Owners of real property; Attorney General.

(1) Except as provided in subsections (2) and (3) of this section, a person who owns or lawfully occupies real property in this state may bring an action against any person or public body that operates an unmanned aircraft system that is flown over the property if:

(a) The operator of the unmanned aircraft system has flown the unmanned aircraft system over the property on at least one previous occasion; and

(b) The person notified the owner or operator of the unmanned aircraft system that the person did not want the unmanned aircraft system flown over the property.

(2) A person may not bring an action under this section if:

(a) The unmanned aircraft system is lawfully in the flight path for landing at an airport, airfield or runway; and

(b) The unmanned aircraft system is in the process of taking off or landing.

(3) A person may not bring an action under this section if the unmanned aircraft system is operated for commercial purposes in compliance with authorization granted by the Federal Aviation Administration. This subsection does not preclude a person from bringing another civil action, including but not limited to an action for invasion of privacy or an action for invasion of personal privacy under ORS 30.865.

(4) A prevailing plaintiff may recover treble damages for any injury to the person or the property by reason of a trespass by an unmanned aircraft system as described in this section, and may be awarded injunctive relief in the action.

(5) A prevailing plaintiff may recover attorney fees under ORS 20.080 if the amount pleaded in an action under this section is $10,000 or less.

(6) The Attorney General, on behalf of the State of Oregon, may bring an action or claim for relief alleging nuisance or trespass arising from the operation of an unmanned aircraft system in the airspace over this state. A court shall award reasonable attorney fees to the Attorney General if the Attorney General prevails in an action under this section.

837.385 Preemption of local laws regulating unmanned aircraft systems. 

Except as expressly authorized by state statute, the authority to regulate the ownership or operation of unmanned aircraft systems is vested solely in the Legislative Assembly. Except as expressly authorized by state statute, a local government, as defined ORS 174.116, may not enact an ordinance or resolution that regulates the ownership or operation of unmanned aircraft systems or otherwise engage in the regulation of the ownership or operation of unmanned aircraft systems.

837.390 Applicability. 

ORS 837.300 to 837.390 and 837.995 and section 11, chapter 686, Oregon Laws 2013, do not apply to the Armed Forces of the United States as defined in ORS 352.313.

837.990 Penalties. 

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section and subject to ORS 153.022, a person commits a Class A violation if the person violates any provision of this chapter or any rule adopted, or order issued, under this chapter.

(2) The offense described in ORS 837.080, prohibited operation of an aircraft, is a Class B misdemeanor.

Undefined Section in Chapter 837.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, a person may not operate an unmanned aircraft system over the boundaries of privately owned premises in a manner so as to intentionally, knowingly or recklessly harass or annoy the owner or occupant of the privately owned premises.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply to the use of an unmanned aircraft system by a law enforcement agency under ORS 837.335.

(3)

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this subsection, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class B violation.

(b) If, at the time of the offense, the person has one prior conviction under this section, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class A violation.

(c) If, at the time of the offense, the person has two or more prior convictions under this section, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class B misdemeanor.

(d) If the court imposes a sentence of probation for a violation under paragraph (c) of this subsection, the court may order as a condition of probation that the person may not possess an unmanned aircraft system.

164.885 Endangering aircraft. 

(1) A person commits the crime of endangering aircraft in the first degree if the person knowingly:

 (a) Throws an object at, or drops an object upon, an aircraft;

 (b) Discharges a bow and arrow, gun, airgun or firearm at or toward an aircraft;

 (c) Tampers with an aircraft or a part, system, machine or substance used to operate an aircraft in such a manner as to impair the safety, efficiency or operation of an aircraft without the consent of the owner, operator or possessor of the aircraft; or

(d) Places, sets, arms or causes to be discharged a spring gun, trap, explosive device or explosive material with the intent of damaging, destroying or discouraging the operation of an aircraft.

(2)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, a person commits the crime of endangering aircraft in the second degree if the person knowingly possesses a firearm or deadly weapon in a   restricted access area of a commercial service airport that has at least 2 million passenger boardings per calendar year.

(b) Paragraph (a) of this subsection does not apply to a person authorized under federal law or an airport security program to possess a firearm or deadly weapon in a restricted access area.

(3) (a) Endangering aircraft in the first degree is a Class C felony.

(b) Endangering aircraft in the second degree is a Class A misdemeanor.

(4) As used in this section, “restricted access area” means an area of a commercial service airport that is:

(a) Designated as restricted in the airport security program approved by the federal Transportation Security Administration; and

(b) Marked at points of entry with signs giving notice that access to the area is restricted.

 

Note: 164.885 was enacted into law by the Legislative Assembly but was not added to or made a part of ORS chapter 164 or any series therein by legislative action. See Preface to Oregon Revised Statutes for further explanation.

Section 837.995 Crimes involving unmanned aircraft systems; penalties. 

(1) A person commits a Class A felony if the person possesses or controls an unmanned aircraft system and intentionally causes, or attempts to cause, the unmanned aircraft system to:

(a) Fire a bullet or other projectile at an aircraft while the aircraft is in the air;

(b) Direct a laser at an aircraft while the aircraft is in the air; or

(c) Crash into an aircraft while the aircraft is in the air.

(2) A person who intentionally interferes with, or gains unauthorized control over, an unmanned aircraft system licensed by the Federal Aviation Administration, or operated by the Armed Forces of the United States as defined in ORS 352.313, an agency of the United States or a federal, state or local law enforcement agency, commits a Class C felony.

Section 837.998 Civil penalties. 

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, the Director of the Oregon Department of Aviation may impose a civil penalty not to exceed $720 for each violation of any provision of this chapter or any rule adopted, or order issued, under this chapter.

(2) The director may impose a civil penalty not to exceed $2,500 for violation of ORS 837.080 or any rule adopted, or order issued, under this chapter to enforce ORS 837.080.

(3) The director shall impose civil penalties under this section in the manner provided in ORS 183.745.

Undefined Section in Chapter 837.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, a person may not operate an unmanned aircraft system over the boundaries of privately owned premises in a manner so as to intentionally, knowingly or recklessly harass or annoy the owner or occupant of the privately owned premises.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply to the use of an unmanned aircraft system by a law enforcement agency under ORS 837.335.

(3)

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this subsection, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class B violation.

(b) If, at the time of the offense, the person has one prior conviction under this section, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class A violation.

(c) If, at the time of the offense, the person has two or more prior convictions under this section, violation of subsection (1) of this section is a Class B misdemeanor.

(d) If the court imposes a sentence of probation for a violation under paragraph (c) of this subsection, the court may order as a condition of probation that the person may not possess an unmanned aircraft system.

Section 163.700.

(1) Except as provided in ORS 163.702, a person commits the crime of invasion of personal privacy in the second degree if:

(a)

(A) For the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of the person, the person is in a location to observe another person in a state of nudity without the consent of the other person; and

(B) The other person is in a place and circumstances where the person has a reasonable expectation of personal privacy; or

(b)

(A) The person knowingly makes or records a photograph, motion picture, videotape or other visual recording of another person’s intimate area without the consent of the other person; and

(B) The person being recorded has a reasonable expectation of privacy concerning the intimate area.

(2) As used in this section and ORS 163.701:

(a) “Intimate area” means nudity, or undergarments that are being worn by a person and are covered by clothing.

(b) “Makes or records a photograph, motion picture, videotape or other visual recording” includes, but is not limited to:

(A) Making or recording or employing, authorizing, permitting, compelling or inducing another person to make or record a photograph, motion picture, videotape or other visual recording.

(B) Making or recording a photograph, motion picture, videotape or other visual recording through the use of an unmanned aircraft system as defined in ORS 837.300, even if the unmanned aircraft system is operated for commercial purposes in compliance with authorization granted by the Federal Aviation Administration.

(c) “Nudity” means any part of the uncovered or less than opaquely covered:

(A) Genitals;

(B) Pubic area; or

(C) Female breast below a point immediately above the top of the areola.

(d) “Places and circumstances where the person has a reasonable expectation of personal privacy” includes, but is not limited to, a bathroom, dressing room, locker room that includes an enclosed area for dressing or showering, tanning booth and any area where a person undresses in an enclosed space that is not open to public view.

(e) “Public view” means that an area can be readily seen and that a person within the area can be distinguished by normal unaided vision when viewed from a public place as defined in ORS 161.015.

(f) “Reasonable expectation of privacy concerning the intimate area” means that the person intended to protect the intimate area from being seen and has not exposed the intimate area to public view.

(3) Invasion of personal privacy in the second degree is a Class A misdemeanor.

 

Section Undefined (Passed as law but waiting on location to where it is to be added between 837.300-390)

(1) As used in this section, “critical infrastructure facility” means any of the following facilities, if completely enclosed by a fence or other physical barrier that is obviously designed to exclude intruders, or if marked with a sign conspicuously posted on the property that indicates that entry is forbidden:

(a) A petroleum or alumina refinery;

(b) An electrical power generating facility, substation, switching station or electrical control center;

(c) A chemical, polymer or rubber manufacturing facility;

(d) A water intake structure, water treatment facility, wastewater treatment plant or pump station;

(e) A natural gas compressor station;

(f) A liquid natural gas terminal or storage facility;

(g) A telecommunications central switching office;

(h) A port, railroad switching yard, trucking terminal or other freight transportation facility;

(i) A gas processing plant, including a plant used in the processing, treatment or fractionation of natural gas;

(j) A transmission facility used by a federally licensed radio or television station;

(k) A steelmaking facility that uses an electric arc furnace to make steel;

(L) A dam that is classified as a high hazard by the Water Resources Department;

(m) Any portion of an aboveground oil, gas or chemical pipeline that is enclosed by a fence or other physical barrier that is obviously designed to exclude intruders; or

(n) A correctional facility or law enforcement facility.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, a person commits a Class A violation if the person intentionally or knowingly:

(a) Operates an unmanned aircraft system over a critical infrastructure facility at an altitude not higher than 400 feet above ground level; or

(b) Allows an unmanned aircraft system to make contact with a critical infrastructure facility, including any person or object on the premises of or within the facility.

(3) This section does not apply to:

(a) The federal government.

(b) A public body.

(c) A law enforcement agency.

(d) A person under contract with or otherwise acting under the direction or on behalf of the federal government, a public body or a law enforcement agency.

(e) An owner or operator of the critical infrastructure facility.

(f) A person who has the prior written consent of the owner or operator of the critical infrastructure facility.

(g) The owner or occupant of the property on which the critical infrastructure facility is located.

(h) A person who has the prior written consent of the owner or occupant of the property on which the critical infrastructure facility is located.

(i) A person operating an unmanned aircraft system for commercial purposes in compliance with authorization granted by the Federal Aviation Administration.

Section 498.128

(1) The State Fish and Wildlife Commission shall adopt rules prohibiting the use of drones for the following purposes related to the pursuit of wildlife:

(a) Angling;

(b) Hunting;

(c) Trapping;

(d) Aiding angling, hunting or trapping through the use of drones to harass, track, locate or scout wildlife; and

(e) Interfering in the acts of a person who is lawfully angling, hunting or trapping.

(2) Rules adopted to carry out the prohibitions provided for in this section may include exemptions for:

(a) Subject to ORS 837.360 [and 837.365], the State Department of Fish and Wildlife and the department’s agents and contractors for the use of drones in carrying out the duties of the department; or

(b) The use of drones in a manner otherwise prohibited under this section if the purpose of the use is to benefit wildlife management or habitat or for the protection of property.

(3) Nothing in this section is meant to limit the use of drones by a person who is lawfully engaging in activities authorized under the commercial fishing laws.

(4) As used in this section, “drone” means:

(a) An unmanned flying machine;

(b) An unmanned water-based vehicle; or

(c) Any other vehicle that is able to operate in the air, in or under the water or on land, either remotely or autonomously, and without a human occupant.

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Jonathan Rupprecht

Mr. Rupprecht is an aviation attorney who focuses on drones. Read more about his background as a commercial pilot, flight instructor, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University grad, and legal author. He has had media appearances on Forbes, Newsweek, Politico, NPR, Marketwatch, The Independent, Motherboard, and other sources. Feel free to send Jonathan a message here.

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