This article is written to help drone training educators and schools who offer drone training courses to understand the legal issues surrounding drones.
Why? We need drones in the schools to promote STEM education. If you are an educator or school needing material, I have created a dedicated drone education resource page where I will continually add resources to help you in this area. :)
If you are setting up a drone program, you should check out my article 5 Problem Areas When Integrating Drones Into Large Companies as it brings up many questions that need to be answered by schools or universities setting up a drone program.
Table of Contents of Article
- 1 Foundations of Drone Law for Drone Training Educators
- 2 How Drone Training Educators Can Fly Legally
- 3 Part 107 Articles You Might Enjoy
- 4 Important Points About Part 107 For Educators & Schools:
- 5 Potential Liability Issues that Drone Training Instructors and Schools Face
- 6 Conclusion
Foundations of Drone Law for Drone Training Educators
The Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution gives Congress authority to “regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states.” Congress created the Federal Aviation Agency by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, but in 1967, Congress changed the name into the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) and moved that agency into the Department of Transportation (“DOT”) which is a Presidential cabinet department. The FAA has been given by Congress jurisdiction to regulate navigable airspace of aircraft by regulation or order. . . . .
The FAA has created regulations, known as the Federal Aviation Regulations (“FARs”), which govern the certification of only civil aircraft, civil pilot licensing, airspace, commercial operations, general pilot operating rules, pilot schools and certificated agencies, airports, and navigational facilities.
The FAA also “regulates” in multiple ways by creating advisory circulars, or memos or interpretations on the regulations. Regulations ARE the law while advisory circulars, memos, and interpretations are the FAA’s opinion of how to follow the law, but they are NOT the law. However, they somewhat become law in effect because even though they are not law, the interpretations change people’s behavior who would rather not pay an attorney to defend them in a prosecution case. They in effect stay out of the grey area like the guy with the yellow shirt in the graphic. When I say grey, I don’t mean that it is not clear as to whether it is law, the grey area is not law, but I mean that it is unclear as to whether a judge would agree with the FAA’s opinion and would find the guy in the yellow shirt to be in violation of the regulations. In short, the law is what you get charged with violating, but the interpretations/memos/advisory circulars are what determine if you are on the FAA “hit list” so they can go fishing to try and get you with the law.
Keep in mind that the FAA has the super vague regulation which prohibits you from acting in a careless or reckless manner which functionally acts as a catch-all. This gets thrown in as a charge for almost every FAA prosecution out there. Out of the 23 FAA enforcement actions against drone operators I studied, all 23 of them were charged with violating 91.13 (107.23 was NOT around at the time the prosecutions started).
Why are these regulations created? They are really safety standards that have been proscribed by the FAA for us to follow to maintain the safety of the national airspace system. The FARs apply to almost everything that touches aviation. A good exercise is to find something that the FARs do NOT regulate.
Below is a graph to help you understand the different areas that the FAA regulates which all contribute to the safety of the national airspace system.
How Drone Training Educators Can Fly Legally
Unmanned aircraft can be flown as public aircraft under a public COA/COW, as civil aircraft flown under a Section 44807 exemption (formerly called Section 333 exemption), as non-recreational unmanned aircraft under Part 107, or under Section 44807 as a recreational unmanned aircraft. The classification of the aircraft will determine which set of regulations and standards are used.
We are now going to explore each of the 4 options as they relate to drone education.
Option 1. Public Aircraft Operations Under a Public COA/COW
Public aircraft are those that (1) fall into 1 of 6 statutorily defined owned/operated situations, (2) are flying for a governmental purpose, and (3) are NOT flying for a commercial purpose. The big benefit to obtaining public aircraft status is the public aircraft operator determines their own standards for the pilot, aircraft, maintenance of the aircraft, and the medical standards of the pilot, but they still must fly under the restrictions given to them by the FAA as listed in the public certificate of authorization (COA) and/or certificate of waiver.
Technically, most of the operations will be done under a waiver and not authorization but the industry has used the legally incorrect terminology so long that I’m just including them together as COA/COW. If you hear a person say a public COA, it’s the same thing as I’m referencing here. It’s a public aircraft operation that needs to obtain a certificate from the FAA to fly under the regulations. Authorizations are for certain regulations while waivers are for certain regulations. </Legal hair splitting rant>
Unfortunately, educators and schools are unable to fly unmanned aircraft under a public COA for education. (Keep in mind many universities are permitted to fly under public COAs for purposes like aeronautical research.)
The FAA answered the question of whether education was a governmental function in a letter from Mark Bury of the FAA’s Chief Counsel’s Office to Jim Williams of the UAS Integration Office by saying:
If the FAA now were to read a concept as broad as education into the statute, it could exponentially expand the operation of unregulated aircraft. As a concept, education is not restricted to age or curriculum, and would include aviation education such as flight schools. All manned flight schools are civil operations, and are subject to significant regulation – none use public aircraft to teach students to fly, nor would we allow uncertificated pilots operating unregulated aircraft to teach others. The same must hold true for UAS, as the statute contains no distinction in the type of aircraft used to conduct a public aircraft operation. Accordingly, we must answer in the negative your question of whether a university could, in essence, conduct a UAS flight school using its COA.
You also asked whether some limited form of education could be found governmental. It would not be defensible to include education as a governmental function but then draw artificial limits on its scope, such as the level of education being provided, the curriculum, or the aircraft that can be used. Since our agency mission is the safe operation of the national airspace, including the safe integration of UAS into it, any analysis of whether the list of governmental functions can reasonably be expanded to include education must contain a clear consideration of the overall effect that such a change would have on aviation as a whole. There is nothing in the law or its minimal legislative history to suggest that Congress intended education to be a governmental function that a state needs to carry on its business free of aviation safety regulations.
Let’s go to the next option for educators.
Option 2. The 44807 Exemption
Originally these were called Section 333 exemptions. The first group of exemptions in 2014 were for the cinematography industry which was focused on creating movies, not on instructing or education. Exemptions are operation specific. The restrictions slowly morphed over time to be “eh O.K.” enough to allow for other industries to use the exemptions. Over a year after the first exemptions were granted in 2014, on November 20, 2015, the FAA finally granted an exemption to Kansas States University to allow for flight instructing. The FAA issued their educational memo on May 4, 2016 and Part 107 was released June 21, 2016 which is far easier to operate under than the exemptions. The idea behind the memo was to allow people to fly for purposes of education without having to obtain an exemption. To further promote flight training, the FAA granted on November 14, 2016 an amendment to a giant list of exemptions to allow many exemptions to conduct training of students.
But with all this great news, Part 107 somewhat hit reset because the FAA stopped renewing exemptions and most of them expired. The FAA Reauthorization of October 2018 caused a large reset to this area because it changed Part 101 which is what recreational flyers used to fly under and renamed Section 333 to Section 44807.
Section 44807 gives the Department of Transportation authority to determine that the unmanned aircraft does not need an airworthiness certificate. This authority given to the DOT was created before Part 107 or Part 101 were created. It was used to get drones airborne before Part 107 came into effect which is why under 55 pound aircraft were flying under it. Since Part 107 has gone into effect, Section 44807 exemption is really only for aircraft weighing 55 pounds and heavier.
How the 44807 exemption process works is 44807 takes care of the airworthiness certification regulations and the remaining regulations are taken care of by using the Part 11 exemption process. This is why the paperwork allowing you to fly was nicknamed the 44807 exemption (or Section 333 exemption) process, even though Section 44807 does NOT provide any exemption powers!
Even if you have an exemption, some of these regulations are still very burdensome to comply with. For example, 14 CFR 91.119 requires the aircraft to be at least 500ft away from non-participating people and property which makes it very hard to do aerial photography from 500ft! The operator operates under all the federal aviation regulations, except for those specifically exempted. Where exempted, the operator flies according to the restrictions which will provide an equivalent level of safety as the regulations they were exempted from.
Just to recap, you use the 44807 exemption process pretty much only when you are flying a 55 pound or heavier aircraft as Part 107 is easier to fly under.
Option 3. 49 U.S.C. Section 44809 Exception for limited recreational operations of unmanned aircraft
So this area gets slightly confusing. To save you all the back story, basically, we had Section 336 and Part 101. They both are no longer good law. Section 44809 is what recreational pilots fly under now. The Federal Aviation Authorization Act of 2018 create a new provision that allows educators to fly under this 44809 recreational exception.
(a) Educational and Research Purposes.-For the purposes of section 44809 of title 49, United States Code, as added by this Act, a ‘recreational purpose’ as distinguished in subsection (a)(1) of such section shall include an unmanned aircraft system operated by an institution of higher education for educational or research purposes.
. . .
(d) Definitions.-In this section:
(1) Institution of higher education.-The term ‘institution of higher education’ has the meaning given to that term by section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).
(2) Educational or research purposes.-The term ‘education or research purposes’, with respect to the operation of an unmanned aircraft system by an institution of higher education, includes-
“(A) instruction of students at the institution;
“(B) academic or research related uses of unmanned aircraft systems that have been approved by the institution, including Federal research;
“(C) activities undertaken by the institution as part of research projects, including research projects sponsored by the Federal Government; and
“(D) other academic activities approved by the institution.
(e) Statutory Construction.-
(1) Enforcement.-Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of the Administrator to pursue an enforcement action against a person operating any unmanned aircraft who endangers the safety of the national airspace system.
(2) Regulations and standards.-Nothing in this section prohibits the Administrator from promulgating any rules or standards consistent with maintaining the safety and security of the national airspace system.
The benefit to using this exception is it is less regulated. There are some restrictions in that it is very narrow in scope and I suspect that some of the students are wanting to actually fly under Part 107 for non-recreational purposes. Also, there is a greater downside if there is a violation when flying under 44809 than just a Part 107 flyer. But for you, that might not be much of an issue. It’s your call. You can also just fly indoors where the FAA doesn’t have jurisdiction.
Option 4. Part 107 (Non-Recreational Operations) Drone Training
In my opinion, the best choice is for the professor/teacher to obtain a remote pilot certificate. (In-depth step-by-step instructions for obtaining the certificate for first time and current pilots are located here). One student at a time can fly under your direct supervision or they could fly recreationally.
There are two options for obtaining it:
- Manned aircraft pilots certificated under Part 61 and who are also current with a biannual flight review can take a free online training course. They can then get identified from either a certified flight instructor, an FAA aviation safety inspector, a designated pilot examiner, or from an airmen certification representative. They then file through an online portal. They’ll receive and email later notifying them they can print out their temporary remote pilot certificate.
- Brand new pilots can take the remote pilot initial knowledge exam ($150) at a testing center. Also, manned pilots who are not current will have to take the knowledge exam.
If you are brand new to all of this and don’t know much about Part 107, read my article on the Part 107 Drone Regulations.
Part 107 Articles You Might Enjoy
- Free Part 107 Test Study Guide
- FAA’s New Part 107 Drone Regulations- What Drone Operators Need to Know
- How to Get Your FAA Drone Pilot License (For First-Time and Current Pilots)
- Part 107 Waiver (COA) – What Drone Pilots Need to Know
- Part 107 Airmen Certification Standards Explained
- Part 107 Knowledge Test (65 Questions Answered & Explained)
- More Part 107 Test Questions for Remote Pilot Knowledge Test
- How to Fly Your Drone at Night-(Part 107 Night Waiver from 107.29)
Important Points About Part 107 For Educators & Schools:
Please understand that this is NOT a complete list.
The minimum age of the remote pilot in command is 16 years of age. Keep in mind there is no limit how young a person can be who is flying under the direct supervision of the teacher.
Part 107 is for OUTSIDE buildings while in the national airspace. You can get around the regulations by operating in a completely closed building.
The FAA said on page 103-104 of the preamble to the small unmanned aircraft final rule:
To further enable the educational opportunities identified by the commenters, this rule will allow the remote pilot in command (who will be a certificated airman) to supervise another person’s manipulation of a small UAS’s flight controls. A person who receives this type of supervision from the remote pilot in command will not be required to obtain a remote pilot certificate to manipulate the controls of a small UAS as long as the remote pilot in command possesses the ability to immediately take direct control of the small unmanned aircraft. This ability is necessary to ensure that the remote pilot in command can quickly address any mistakes that are made by an uncertificated person operating the flight controls before those mistakes create a safety hazard.
The ability for the remote pilot in command to immediately take over the flight controls could be achieved by using a number of different methods. For example, the operation could involve a “buddy box” type system that uses two control stations: one for the person manipulating the flight controls and one for the remote pilot in command that allows the remote pilot in command to override the other control station and immediately take direct control of the small unmanned aircraft. Another method could involve the remote pilot in command standing close enough to the person manipulating the flight controls so as to be able to physically take over the control station from the other person. A third method could employ the use of an automation system whereby the remote pilot in command could immediately engage that system to put the small unmanned aircraft in a pre-programmed “safe” mode (such as in a hover, in a holding pattern, or “return home”).
Potential Liability Issues that Drone Training Instructors and Schools Face
Instructors and schools face liability issues from multiple areas. Please understand that this is NOT a complete list. You should talk to an attorney to find out what applies to your situation.
State and Local Law Issues
All sorts of states, towns, and counties have started creating drone laws. It is becoming very problematic to keep track of them all since they are springing up like mushrooms. It is almost as if drones laws are the like the latest fad for government officials – like Pokemon and we are now as drone operators trying to catch them all.
Here are two resources that could be very valuable to help you find out your STATE laws:
- A Guide to State Laws Impacting UAS/UAV Operations: A Resource for Recreational, Non-Recreational and Commercial Drone Operators, released today by the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). (Published 10/13,2016).
- Current Unmanned Aircraft State Law Landscape from the National Conference of State Legislatures. (Published 10/7/2016).
Regarding county, city, and town laws…good luck. You are on your own there. This is a big problem for the industry because there is no easy way to track the laws. The databases aren’t complete and these local governments all are wanting to play FAA use all sorts of different terms (drones, UAS, unmanned aircraft, model aircraft, model airplanes, etc.). You end up having to search for a bunch of different terms and hope one get’s a hit; otherwise, you are stuck in the land of uncertainty wondering if you didn’t find the drone law out there or there aren’t any.
The reason I bring this up is there are state laws that have criminal penalties and other liability issues. For example, Florida’s law provides for a private right of action for an individual to sue the drone operator using a drone to gather data of the person’s property that was not able to be seen at eye level. Make sure you check your local laws! The FAA is NOT the only one trying to regulate your drones.
Students Versus the Teacher
Let’s say a student is flying the drone and the teacher isn’t paying attention to the student’s flying. BAM. Now the student injured himself, the teacher, or another student. Uhhh ooo.
Was the teacher proficient in instructing? Was there a means to override the student’s actions to prevent this? Is there insurance covering the teacher, school, and student? Go read my article on drone insurance.
Third Party Bystander Versus Teacher (Now & Later)
This area of liability can be broken down into current liability and a residual type of liability.
The current type of liability would be the teacher and student versus other third parties in the area at the time. (Maybe a mom jogging with a baby stroller, the mailman, old guy walking his dog, etc.)
The more subtle and dangerous type of liability is the lingering residual type of liability that happens when you train many students. If you train 100 students, that is 100 reasons flying around to get you sued. If one of them crashes into someone, you could get brought into a lawsuit as a defendant under the idea that you provided negligent instruction to the student. Hopefully, you will have an insurance policy that will cover this. This is why myself, and other flight instructors, stop instructing altogether because we don’t want to have this lingering liability.
You should also document the living daylights out of all the training you give to students. This will come in handy later on if there is a lawsuit. I created a drone operator’s logbook which will be helpful for documenting training. Yes, it is a paper logbook which means you WON’T have battery, connectivity, firmware, IOS version, etc. problems.
I talk about liability and insurance in greater depth in my drone insurance article.
This is an evolving area of the law. On top of that, it is confusing. If you are setting up a program or currently are running one, you might want to consider working with an aviation attorney to help you navigate this area safely. Additionally, you might need waivers and/or authorizations for some of your operations. If you are needing help, contact me so we can get your program off the ground and soar to new heights of success by integrating drones to save time, money, and lives. Check out our online courses over at www.rupprechtdrones.com which are greater for integrating into your teaching. :)
 U.S Const. art. I, § 8; see also 49 U.S.C. § 40103 (a)(1)(“The United States Government has exclusive sovereignty of airspace of the United States.”).
 Federal Aviation Act, Pub. L. No. 85-726, 72 Stat. 731 (1958).
 See 49 U.S.C. § 40103(b)(1)(Congress delegated to the FAA the job to “develop plans and policy for the use of the navigable airspace and assign by regulation or order the use of the airspace necessary to ensure the safety of aircraft and the efficient use of airspace.”)(emphasis mine).
 14 C.F.R. §§ 1-199.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 21-49.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 61-67.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 71-77.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 119-135.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 91-105.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 141-147.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 150-161.
 14 C.F.R. §§ 170-171.
 14 C.F.R. § 91.13; 107.23.
 See id.