State Drone Law


Colorado Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of June 19, 2017

24-33.5-1228. Colorado firefighting air corps – creation – powers – aircraft acquisitions required – center of excellence – unmanned aircraft systems study and pilot program – Colorado firefighting air corps fund – creation – report – rules.

……..

(2.5)

(c)

(I) IN ADDITION TO PERFORMING THE FUNCTIONS DESCRIBED IN SUBSECTION (2.5)(b) OF THIS SECTION, UPON RECEIVING SUFFICIENT MONEY IN THE FORM OF GIFTS, GRANTS, AND DONATIONS, THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE SHALL CONDUCT A STUDY CONCERNING THE INTEGRATION OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS WITHIN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS THAT RELATE TO CERTAIN PUBLIC-SAFETY FUNCTIONS. AT A MINIMUM, THE STUDY MUST:

(A) IDENTIFY THE MOST FEASIBLE AND READILY AVAILABLE WAYS TO INTEGRATE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY WITHIN LOCAL AND STATE GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONS RELATING TO FIREFIGHTING, SEARCH AND RESCUE, ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION, CRIME SCENE DOCUMENTATION, EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT, AND EMERGENCIES INVOLVING SIGNIFICANT PROPERTY LOSS OR POTENTIAL FOR INJURY OR DEATH; AND

(B) FOR EACH APPLICATION OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS THAT THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IDENTIFIES PURSUANT TO SUBSECTION (2.5)(c)(I)(A) OF THIS SECTION, INCLUDE CONSIDERATION OF PRIVACY CONCERNS, COSTS, AND TIMELINESS OF DEPLOYMENT.

(II) NOT LATER THAN ONE MONTH AFTER COMPLETING THE STUDY DESCRIBED IN SUBSECTION (2.5)(c)(1) OF THIS SECTION, THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE SHALL SUBMIT A REPORT DESCRIBING THE RESULTS OF ITS STUDY TO THE WILDFIRE MATTERS REVIEW COMMITEE CREATED IN SECTION 2-3-1602 AND THE HOUSE AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK, AND NATURAL RESOURCES COMMITTEE AND THE SENATE AGRICULTURE, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND ENERGY COMMITTEE, OR ANY SUCCESSOR COMMITTEES. THE REPORT MUST ADDRESS EACH ITEM DESCRIBED IN SUBSECTION (2.5)(c)(I) OF THIS SECTION, AS WELL AS THE RESULTS OF THE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM PILOT PROGRAM DESCRIBED IN SUBSECTION (2.5)(d) OF THIS SECTION.

(d)

(I) As PART OF THE STUDY DESCRIBED IN SUBSECTION (2.5)(c)(I) OF THIS SECTION, UPON RECEIVING SUFFICIENT MONEY IN THE FORM OF GIFTS, GRANTS, AND DONATIONS, ON AND AFTER THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF THIS SECTION, THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE SHALL OPERATE AN UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM PILOT PROGRAM, REFERRED TO WITHIN THIS SECTION AS THE “PILOT PROGRAM”, TO INTEGRATE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS WITHIN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS THAT RELATE TO CERTAIN PUBLIC-SAFETY FUNCTIONS.

(II) As PART OF THE PILOT PROGRAM, THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY SHALL DEPLOY AT LEAST ONE TEAM OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM OPERATORS TO A REGION WITHIN THE STATE THAT HAS BEEN DESIGNATED BY THE DIVISION AS A FIRE HAZARD. THE PILOT PROGRAM MUST TRAIN THE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM OPERATORS TO OPERATE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS IN VARIOUS CONTEXTS RELATING TO FIREFIGHTING, SEARCH AND RESCUE, ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION, CRIME SCENE DOCUMENTATION, EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT, AND EMERGENCIES INVOLVING SIGNIFICANT PROPERTY LOSS OR POTENTIAL FOR INJURY OR DEATH. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM OPERATORS MAY BE COMPENSATED BY THE CENTER DURING THEIR TRAINING.

(III) IN OPERATING THE PILOT PROGRAM, THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE SHALL NOT INTERFERE WITH ANY ACTIVE WILDFIRE SUPPRESSION EFFORT UNLESS THE CENTER IS GRANTED PERMISSION TO ASSIST IN SUCH EFFORT BY A SUPERVISING AGENCY WITH THE AUTHORITY TO GRANT SUCH PERMISSION

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(3)

(a) The division shall administer the Colorado firefighting air corps fund, which fund is hereby created in the state treasury. The division MAY seek and accept gifts, grants, reimbursements, investments, bond revenues, sales proceeds, commissions for services, sponsorships, advertising fees, licensing fees, profits, or donations from private or public sources for the purposes of this section. The fund consists of all MONEY that may be appropriated to the fund by the general assembly, and all private and public funds received through gifts, grants, reimbursements, investments, bond revenues, sales proceeds, commissions for services, sponsorships, advertising fees, licensing fees, profits, or donations that are transmitted to the state treasurer and credited to the fund. All interest earned from the investment of MONEY in the fund IS credited to the fund. The MONEY in the fund Is continuously appropriated for the purposes indicated in SUBSECTION (3)(c) OF THIS SECTION. Any MONEY not expended at the end of the fiscal year REMAINS in the fund.

(b) The general assembly finds that the implementation of this section does not rely entirely on the receipt of adequate funding through gifts, grants, or donations. Therefore, the division is not subject to the notice requirements specified in section 24-75-1303 (3).

(c) The division shall use the MONEY in the Colorado firefighting air corps fund for the PURPOSES OF SUBSECTION (2.5) OF THIS SECTION AND FOR PAYING THE direct and indirect costs of maintaining the Colorado firefighting air corps, including expenses associated with acquisition, retrofitting, labor, equipment, supply, transportation, air, mobilization, repair, maintenance, and demobilization.

Code of Colorado Regulations  406-0 #004 – AIDS IN TAKING WILDLIFE 

C. It shall be unlawful to use a drone to look for, scout, or detect wildlife as an aid in the hunting or taking of wildlife.

1. For the purposes of this regulation, drone shall be defined as including, without limitation, any contrivance invented, used or designed for navigation of, or flight in the air that is unmanned or guided remotely. A drone may also be referred to as “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” (UAV) or “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System” (UAVS).


Texas Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of June 19, 2017

Texas Government Code Chapter 423. USE OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT

Sec. 423.001. DEFINITION. In this chapter, “image” means any capturing of sound waves, thermal, infrared, ultraviolet, visible light, or other electromagnetic waves, odor, or other conditions existing on or about real property in this state or an individual located on that property.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Sec. 423.002. NONAPPLICABILITY.

(a) It is lawful to capture an image using an unmanned aircraft in this state:

(1) for the purpose of professional or scholarly research and development or for another academic purpose by a person acting on behalf of an institution of higher education or a private or independent institution of higher education, as those terms are defined by Section 61.003, Education Code, including a person who:

(A) is a professor, employee, or student of the institution; or

(B) is under contract with or otherwise acting under the direction or on behalf of the institution;

(2) in airspace designated as a test site or range authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration for the purpose of integrating unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace;

(3) as part of an operation, exercise, or mission of any branch of the United States military;

(4) if the image is captured by a satellite for the purposes of mapping;

(5) if the image is captured by or for an electric or natural gas utility:

(A) for operations and maintenance of utility facilities for the purpose of maintaining utility system reliability and integrity;

(B) for inspecting utility facilities to determine repair, maintenance, or replacement needs during and after construction of such facilities;

(C) for assessing vegetation growth for the purpose of maintaining clearances on utility easements; and

(D) for utility facility routing and siting for the purpose of providing utility service;

(6) with the consent of the individual who owns or lawfully occupies the real property captured in the image;

(7) pursuant to a valid search or arrest warrant;

(8) if the image is captured by a law enforcement authority or a person who is under contract with or otherwise acting under the direction or on behalf of a law enforcement authority:

(A) in immediate pursuit of a person law enforcement officers have reasonable suspicion or probable cause to suspect has committed an offense, not including misdemeanors or offenses punishable by a fine only;

(B) for the purpose of documenting a crime scene where an offense, not including misdemeanors or offenses punishable by a fine only, has been committed;

(C) for the purpose of investigating the scene of:

(i) a human fatality;

(ii) a motor vehicle accident causing death or serious bodily injury to a person; or

(iii) any motor vehicle accident on a state highway or federal interstate or highway;

(D) in connection with the search for a missing person;

(E) for the purpose of conducting a high-risk tactical operation that poses a threat to human life; or

(F) of private property that is generally open to the public where the property owner consents to law enforcement public safety responsibilities;

(9) if the image is captured by state or local law enforcement authorities, or a person who is under contract with or otherwise acting under the direction or on behalf of state authorities, for the purpose of:

(A) surveying the scene of a catastrophe or other damage to determine whether a state of emergency should be declared;

(B) preserving public safety, protecting property, or surveying damage or contamination during a lawfully declared state of emergency; or

(C) conducting routine air quality sampling and monitoring, as provided by state or local law;

(10) at the scene of a spill, or a suspected spill, of hazardous materials;

(11) for the purpose of fire suppression;

(12) for the purpose of rescuing a person whose life or well-being is in imminent danger;

(13) if the image is captured by a Texas licensed real estate broker in connection with the marketing, sale, or financing of real property, provided that no individual is identifiable in the image;

(14) of real property or a person on real property that is within 25 miles of the United States border;

(15) from a height no more than eight feet above ground level in a public place, if the image was captured without using any electronic, mechanical, or other means to amplify the image beyond normal human perception;

(16) of public real property or a person on that property;

(17) if the image is captured by the owner or operator of an oil, gas, water, or other pipeline for the purpose of inspecting, maintaining, or repairing pipelines or other related facilities, and is captured without the intent to conduct surveillance on an individual or real property located in this state;

(18) in connection with oil pipeline safety and rig protection;

(19) in connection with port authority surveillance and security;

(20) if the image is captured by a registered professional land surveyor in connection with the practice of professional surveying, as those terms are defined by Section 1071.002, Occupations Code, provided that no individual is identifiable in the image; or

(21) if the image is captured by a professional engineer licensed under Subchapter G, Chapter 1001, Occupations Code, in connection with the practice of engineering, as defined by Section 1001.003, Occupations Code, provided that no individual is identifiable in the image.

(b) This chapter does not apply to the manufacture, assembly, distribution, or sale of an unmanned aircraft.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Amended by: Acts 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., Ch. 360 (H.B. 2167), Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2015.

Sec. 423.003. OFFENSE: ILLEGAL USE OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT TO CAPTURE IMAGE.

(a) A person commits an offense if the person uses an unmanned aircraft to capture an image of an individual or privately owned real property in this state with the intent to conduct surveillance on the individual or property captured in the image.

(b) An offense under this section is a Class C misdemeanor.

(c) It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the person destroyed the image:

(1) as soon as the person had knowledge that the image was captured in violation of this section; and

(2) without disclosing, displaying, or distributing the image to a third party.

(d) In this section, “intent” has the meaning assigned by Section 6.03, Penal Code.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Sec. 423.004. OFFENSE: POSSESSION, DISCLOSURE, DISPLAY, DISTRIBUTION, OR USE OF IMAGE.

(a) A person commits an offense if the person:

(1) captures an image in violation of Section 423.003; and

(2) possesses, discloses, displays, distributes, or otherwise uses that image.

(b) An offense under this section for the possession of an image is a Class C misdemeanor. An offense under this section for the disclosure, display, distribution, or other use of an image is a Class B misdemeanor.

(c) Each image a person possesses, discloses, displays, distributes, or otherwise uses in violation of this section is a separate offense.

(d) It is a defense to prosecution under this section for the possession of an image that the person destroyed the image as soon as the person had knowledge that the image was captured in violation of Section 423.003.

(e) It is a defense to prosecution under this section for the disclosure, display, distribution, or other use of an image that the person stopped disclosing, displaying, distributing, or otherwise using the image as soon as the person had knowledge that the image was captured in violation of Section 423.003.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Sec. 423.0045. OFFENSE: OPERATION OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT OVER CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITY.

(a) In this section:

(1) “Critical infrastructure facility” means:

(A) one of the following, if completely enclosed by a fence or other physical barrier that is obviously designed to exclude intruders, or if clearly marked with a sign or signs that are posted on the property, are reasonably likely to come to the attention of intruders, and indicate that entry is forbidden:

(i) a petroleum or alumina refinery;

(ii) an electrical power generating facility, substation, switching station, or electrical control center;

(iii) a chemical, polymer, or rubber manufacturing facility;

(iv) a water intake structure, water treatment facility, wastewater treatment plant, or pump station;

(v) a natural gas compressor station;

(vi) a liquid natural gas terminal or storage facility;

(vii) a telecommunications central switching office or any structure used as part of a system to provide wired or wireless telecommunications services;

(viii) a port, railroad switching yard, trucking terminal, or other freight transportation facility;

(ix) a gas processing plant, including a plant used in the processing, treatment, or fractionation of natural gas;

(x) a transmission facility used by a federally licensed radio or television station;

(xi) a steelmaking facility that uses an electric arc furnace to make steel; or

(xii) a dam that is classified as a high hazard by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality; or

(xiii) a concentrated animal feeding operation, as defined by Section 26.048, Water Code; or

(B) if enclosed by a fence or other physical barrier obviously designed to exclude intruders:

(i) any portion of an aboveground oil, gas, or chemical pipeline;
(ii) an oil or gas drilling site;
(iii) a group of tanks used to store crude oil, such as a tank battery;
(iv) an oil, gas, or chemical production facility;
(v) an oil or gas wellhead; or
(vi) any oil and gas facility that has an active flare

(2) “Dam” means any barrier, including any appurtenant structures, that is constructed for the purpose of permanently or temporarily impounding water.

(b) A person commits an offense if the person intentionally or knowingly:

(1) operates an unmanned aircraft over a critical infrastructure facility and the unmanned aircraft is not higher than 400 feet above ground level;

(2) allows an unmanned aircraft to make contact with a critical infrastructure facility, including any person or object on the premises of or within the facility; or

(3) allows an unmanned aircraft to come within a distance of a critical infrastructure facility that is close enough to interfere with the operations of or cause a disturbance to the facility.

(c) This section does not apply to conduct described by Subsection (b) that is committed by:

(1) the federal government, the state, or a governmental entity;

(2) a person under contract with or otherwise acting under the direction or on behalf of the federal government, the state, or a governmental entity;

(3) a law enforcement agency;

(4) a person under contract with or otherwise acting under the direction or on behalf of a law enforcement agency;

(5) an owner or operator of the critical infrastructure facility;

(6) a person under contract with or otherwise acting under the direction or on behalf of an owner or operator of the critical infrastructure facility;

(7) a person who has the prior written consent of the owner or operator of the critical infrastructure facility;

(8) the owner or occupant of the property on which the critical infrastructure facility is located or a person who has the prior written consent of the owner or occupant of that property; or

(9) an operator of an unmanned aircraft that is being used for a commercial purpose, if the operation is conducted in compliance with:

(A) each applicable Federal Aviation Administration rule, restriction, or exemption; and
(B) all required Federal Aviation Administration authorizations

(d) An offense under this section is a Class B misdemeanor, except that the offense is a Class A misdemeanor if the actor has previously been convicted under this section.

Added by Acts 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., Ch. 1033 (H.B. 1481), Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2015.

Sec. 423.005. ILLEGALLY OR INCIDENTALLY CAPTURED IMAGES NOT SUBJECT TO DISCLOSURE.

(a) Except as otherwise provided by Subsection (b), an image captured in violation of Section 423.003, or an image captured by an unmanned aircraft that was incidental to the lawful capturing of an image:

(1) may not be used as evidence in any criminal or juvenile proceeding, civil action, or administrative proceeding;

(2) is not subject to disclosure, inspection, or copying under Chapter 552; and

(3) is not subject to discovery, subpoena, or other means of legal compulsion for its release.

(b) An image described by Subsection (a) may be disclosed and used as evidence to prove a violation of this chapter and is subject to discovery, subpoena, or other means of legal compulsion for that purpose.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Sec. 423.006. CIVIL ACTION.

(a) An owner or tenant of privately owned real property located in this state may bring against a person who, in violation of Section 423.003, captured an image of the property or the owner or tenant while on the property an action to:

(1) enjoin a violation or imminent violation of Section 423.003 or 423.004;

(2) recover a civil penalty of:

(A) $5,000 for all images captured in a single episode in violation of Section 423.003; or

(B) $10,000 for disclosure, display, distribution, or other use of any images captured in a single episode in violation of Section 423.004; or

(3) recover actual damages if the person who captured the image in violation of Section 423.003 discloses, displays, or distributes the image with malice.

(b) For purposes of recovering the civil penalty or actual damages under Subsection (a), all owners of a parcel of real property are considered to be a single owner and all tenants of a parcel of real property are considered to be a single tenant.

(c) In this section, “malice” has the meaning assigned by Section 41.001, Civil Practice and Remedies Code.

(d) In addition to any civil penalties authorized under this section, the court shall award court costs and reasonable attorney’s fees to the prevailing party.

(e) Venue for an action under this section is governed by Chapter 15, Civil Practice and Remedies Code.

(f) An action brought under this section must be commenced within two years from the date the image was:

(1) captured in violation of Section 423.003; or

(2) initially disclosed, displayed, distributed, or otherwise used in violation of Section 423.004.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Sec. 423.007. RULES FOR USE BY LAW ENFORCEMENT.

The Department of Public Safety shall adopt rules and guidelines for use of an unmanned aircraft by a law enforcement authority in this state.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Sec. 423.008. REPORTING BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY.

(a) Not earlier than January 1 and not later than January 15 of each odd-numbered year, each state law enforcement agency and each county or municipal law enforcement agency located in a county or municipality, as applicable, with a population greater than 150,000, that used or operated an unmanned aircraft during the preceding 24 months shall issue a written report to the governor, the lieutenant governor, and each member of the legislature and shall:

(1) retain the report for public viewing; and

(2) post the report on the law enforcement agency’s publicly accessible website, if one exists.

(b) The report must include:

(1) the number of times an unmanned aircraft was used, organized by date, time, location, and the types of incidents and types of justification for the use;

(2) the number of criminal investigations aided by the use of an unmanned aircraft and a description of how the unmanned aircraft aided each investigation;

(3) the number of times an unmanned aircraft was used for a law enforcement operation other than a criminal investigation, the dates and locations of those operations, and a description of how the unmanned aircraft aided each operation;

(4) the type of information collected on an individual, residence, property, or area that was not the subject of a law enforcement operation and the frequency of the collection of this information; and

(5) the total cost of acquiring, maintaining, repairing, and operating or otherwise using each unmanned aircraft for the preceding 24 months.

Added by Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 1390 (H.B. 912), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2013.

Sec. 423.009. REGULATION OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT BY POLITICAL SUBDIVISION.

(a) In this section:

(1) “Political subdivision” includes a county, a joint board created under Section 22.074, Transportation Code, and a municipality.
(2) “Special event” means a festival, celebration, or other gathering that:

(A) involves:

(i) the reservation and temporary use of all or a portion of a public park, road, or other property of a political subdivision; and
(ii) entertainment, the sale of merchandise, food, or beverages, or mass participation in a sports event; and

(B) requires a significant use or coordination of a political subdivision’s services.

(b) Except as provided by Subsection (c), a political subdivision may not adopt or enforce any ordinance, order, or other similar measure regarding the operation of an unmanned aircraft.
(c) A political subdivision may adopt and enforce an ordinance, order, or other similar measure regarding:

(1) the use of an unmanned aircraft during a special event;
(2) the political subdivision’s use of an unmanned aircraft; or
(3) the use of an unmanned aircraft near a facility or infrastructure owned by the political subdivision, if the political subdivision:

(A) applies for and receives authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration to adopt the regulation; and
(B) after providing reasonable notice, holds a public hearing on the political subdivision’s intent to apply for the authorization.

(d) An ordinance, order, or other similar measure that violates Subsection (b) is void and unenforceable.


Michigan Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.301 Short title.

This act shall be known and may be cited as the “unmanned aircraft systems act”.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.303 Definitions.

As used in this act:

(a) “Person” means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, governmental entity, or other legal entity.

(b) “Political subdivision” means a county, city, village, township, or other political subdivision, public corporation, authority, or district in this state.

(c) “Unmanned aircraft system” means an unmanned aircraft and all of the associated support equipment, control station, data links, telemetry, communications, navigation equipment, and other equipment necessary to operate the unmanned aircraft.

(d) “Unmanned aircraft” means an aircraft flown by a remote pilot via a ground control system, or autonomously through use of an on-board computer, communication links, and any additional equipment that is necessary for the unmanned aircraft to operate safely.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.305 Political subdivision; limitations; powers; federal preemption; conflict with other sections of law.

 (1) Except as expressly authorized by statute, a political subdivision shall not enact or enforce an ordinance or resolution that regulates the ownership or operation of unmanned aircraft or otherwise engage in the regulation of the ownership or operation of unmanned aircraft.

(2) This act does not prohibit a political subdivision from promulgating rules, regulations, and ordinances for the use of unmanned aircraft systems by the political subdivision within the boundaries of the political subdivision.

(3) This act does not affect federal preemption of state law.

(4) If this act conflicts with section 40111c or 40112 of the natural resources and environmental protection act, 1994 PA 451, MCL 324.40111c and 324.40112, those sections control.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.311 Operation of unmanned aircraft system; person authorized by Federal Aviation Administration.

A person that is authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration to operate unmanned aircraft systems for commercial purposes may operate an unmanned aircraft system in this state if the unmanned aircraft system is operated in a manner consistent with federal law.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section  259.313 Operation of unmanned aircraft system; manner.

A person may operate an unmanned aircraft system in this state for recreational purposes if the unmanned aircraft system is operated in a manner consistent with federal law for the operation of a model aircraft.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.321 Operation of unmanned aircraft system; interference with official duties prohibited.

An individual shall not knowingly and intentionally operate an unmanned aircraft system in a manner that interferes with the official duties of any of the following:

(a) A police officer.

(b) A firefighter.

(c) A paramedic.

(d) Search and rescue personnel.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.322 Operation of unmanned aircraft system; harassment, violation of order, or invasion of privacy prohibited; definition; individual registered as sex offender.

(1) A person shall not knowingly and intentionally operate an unmanned aircraft system to subject an individual to harassment. As used in this subsection, “harassment” means that term as defined in section 411h or 411i of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.411h and 750.411i.

(2) A person shall not knowingly and intentionally operate an unmanned aircraft system within a distance that, if the person were to do so personally rather than through remote operation of an unmanned aircraft, would be a violation of a restraining order or other judicial order.

(3) A person shall not knowingly and intentionally operate an unmanned aircraft system to violate section 539j of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.539j, or to otherwise capture photographs, video, or audio recordings of an individual in a manner that would invade the individual’s reasonable expectation of privacy.

(4) An individual who is required to register as a sex offender under the sex offenders registration act, 1994 PA 295, MCL 28.721 to 28.736, shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system to knowingly and intentionally follow, contact, or capture images of another individual, if the individual’s sentence in a criminal case would prohibit the individual from following, contacting, or capturing the image of the other individual.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.323 Violation as misdemeanor; penalty; other violation of law.

(1) An individual who violates section 21 or 22 is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 90 days or a fine of not more than $500.00, or both.

(2) This section does not affect the ability to investigate or to arrest, prosecute, or convict an individual for any other violation of a law of this state.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 259.331 Unmanned aircraft systems task force.

 (1) The unmanned aircraft systems task force is created to develop statewide policy recommendations on the operation, use, and regulation of unmanned aircraft systems in this state.

(2) Within 90 days after the effective date of this act, the governor shall appoint initial members of the unmanned aircraft systems task force. The individuals appointed to the unmanned aircraft systems task force by the governor, initially and subsequently, must comprise 1 member from each of the following agencies or interest groups:

(a) A member from the state transportation department nominated by the director of the state transportation department.

(b) A member from the division of the state transportation department that performs bridge inspections and road work, nominated by the director of the state transportation department.

(c) A member from the department of state police, nominated by the director of the department of state police.

(d) A member from the department of natural resources, nominated by the director of the department of natural resources.

(e) A member from the department of agriculture and rural development, nominated by the director of the department of agriculture and rural development.

(f) A member from the department of licensing and regulatory affairs nominated by the director of the department of licensing and regulatory affairs.

(g) A member from the department of corrections, nominated by the director of the department of corrections.

(h) An unmanned aircraft systems technical commercial representative.

(i) An unmanned aircraft systems manufacturing industry representative.

(j) A member who is licensed by the Federal Aviation Administration to operate unmanned aircraft that weigh less than 55 pounds.

(k) A member who represents airports in this state, nominated by the director of the state transportation department.

(l) A member from the Michigan Municipal League, nominated by the executive director of the Michigan Municipal League.

(m) A law enforcement official from a municipality, nominated by a statewide police chiefs association.

(n) A member who represents county sheriffs, nominated by the president of the Michigan Sheriffs’ Association.

(o) A member of a statewide agricultural association, nominated by the president of the association.

(p) A member of a statewide retail association, nominated by the president of the association.

(q) A member of a statewide manufacturing trade association, nominated by the president or chief executive officer of the association.

(r) A member of a statewide property and casualty insurance association, nominated by the president or chief executive officer of the association.

(s) A member of a statewide association that represents real estate brokers licensed in this state, nominated by the president of the association.

(t) A member of a statewide surveying association, nominated by the president of the association.

(u) A member of a statewide freight railroad association, nominated by the president of the association.

(v) A member of a statewide broadcasters association, nominated by the president of the association.

(w) A member who represents persons that operate key facilities, as that term is defined in section 552c of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.552c.

(x) A member who is knowledgeable about the operation of public utilities who represents public utilities in the Upper Peninsula, nominated by the chairman of the public service commission.

(y) A member who is knowledgeable about the operation of public utilities who represents public utilities in the Lower Peninsula, nominated by the chairman of the public service commission.

(z) A member who represents the Mackinac Bridge Authority, nominated by the authority.

(aa) A member who represents the city of Mackinac Island.

(3) Initial nominations to the unmanned aircraft systems task force must be submitted to the governor within 60 days after the effective date of this act. The governor shall make the initial appointments within 30 days after the close of nominations.

(4) Members of the unmanned aircraft systems task force shall serve for terms of 4 years or until a successor is appointed, whichever is later, except that of the initial members appointed, 6 members, as designated by the governor, shall serve for 1 year, 6 members, as designated by the governor, shall serve for 2 years, and 7 members, as designated by the governor, shall serve for 3 years.

(5) If a vacancy occurs on the unmanned aircraft systems task force, the governor shall make an appointment for the unexpired term in the same manner as the original appointment.

(6) The governor may remove a member of the unmanned aircraft systems task force for incompetence, dereliction of duty, malfeasance, misfeasance, or nonfeasance in office, or any other good cause.

(7) The member from the state transportation department shall chair the unmanned aircraft systems task force and serve as a liaison to the governor and the standing committees in the house and senate that mainly deal with transportation issues. The unmanned aircraft systems task force shall meet as necessary to complete the duties of the task force. Meetings of the unmanned aircraft systems task force must be held in the central part of this state.

(8) A majority of the members of the unmanned aircraft systems task force constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at a meeting of the task force. A majority of the members present and serving are required for official action of the task force.

(9) The unmanned aircraft systems task force shall conduct its business at public meetings of the task force held in compliance with the open meetings act, 1976 PA 267, MCL 15.261 to 15.275.

(10) A writing prepared, owned, used, in the possession of, or retained by the unmanned aircraft systems task force in the performance of an official function is subject to the freedom of information act, 1976 PA 442, MCL 15.231 to 15.246.

(11) The members of the unmanned aircraft systems task force must receive no compensation for serving as members of the task force.

(12) The unmanned aircraft systems task force shall consider commercial and private uses of unmanned aircraft systems, landowner and privacy rights, as well as general rules and regulations for safe operation of unmanned aircraft systems, and prepare comprehensive recommendations for the safe and lawful operation of unmanned aircraft systems in this state. The recommendations must include, but not be limited to, recommendations regarding the protection of public and private property interests and the use of unmanned aircraft systems over public property.

(13) The state transportation department shall provide administrative support to the unmanned aircraft systems task force.

(14) The unmanned aircraft systems task force shall submit a report with recommendations to the governor and the standing committees in the house and senate that mainly deal with transportation issues within 3 months after the first meeting of the task force.

(15) After submitting the report required under subsection (14), the unmanned aircraft systems task force shall meet not less than once every 18 months to consider any new developments or problems that may require further consideration and recommendations by the task force.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section  324.40111c Use of tranquilizer propelled from bow or firearm; use of unmanned vehicle or device; prohibitions.

(1) A person other than the department shall not take game using a tranquilizer propelled from a bow or firearm.

(2) An individual shall not take game or fish using an unmanned vehicle or unmanned device that uses aerodynamic forces to achieve flight or using an unmanned vehicle or unmanned device that operates on the surface of water or underwater.

Michigan Compiled Laws Section 324.40112 Obstructing or interfering in lawful taking of animals or fish; prohibited conduct; petition; injunction; violation as misdemeanor; penalties; section inapplicable to peace officer.

(1) An individual shall not obstruct or interfere in the lawful taking of animals or fish by another individual.

(2) An individual violates this section when the individual intentionally or knowingly does any of the following:

(a) Drives or disturbs animals or fish for the purpose of disrupting a lawful taking.

(b) Blocks, impedes, or harasses another individual who is engaged in the process of lawfully taking an animal or fish.

(c) Uses a natural or artificial visual, aural, olfactory, gustatory, or physical stimulus or an unmanned vehicle or unmanned device that uses aerodynamic forces to achieve flight or that operates on the surface of the water or underwater, to affect animal or fish behavior in order to hinder or prevent the lawful taking of an animal or a fish.

(d) Erects barriers to deny ingress or egress to areas where the lawful taking of animals or fish may occur. This subdivision does not apply to an individual who erects barriers to prevent trespassing on his or her property.

(e) Interjects himself or herself into the line of fire of an individual lawfully taking wildlife.

(f) Affects the condition or placement of personal or public property intended for use in the lawful taking of an animal or a fish in order to impair the usefulness of the property or prevent the use of the property.

(g) Enters or remains upon private lands without the permission of the owner or the owner’s agent, for the purpose of violating this section.

(h) Engages in any other act or behavior for the purpose of violating this section.

(3) Upon petition of an aggrieved person or an individual who reasonably may be aggrieved by a violation of this section, a court of competent jurisdiction, upon a showing that an individual was engaged in and threatens to continue to engage in illegal conduct under this section, may enjoin that conduct.

(4) An individual who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not less than $500.00 or more than $1,000.00, or both, and the costs of prosecution. An individual who violates this section a second or subsequent time is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not less than $1,000.00 or more than $2,500.00, or both, and the costs of prosecution. In addition to the penalties provided for in this subsection, any permit or license issued by the department authorizing the individual to take animals or fish shall be revoked. A prosecution under this section does not preclude prosecution or other action under any other criminal or civil statute.

(5) This section does not apply to a peace officer while the peace officer performs his or her lawful duties.

Michigan Administrative Code. Department of Natural Resources.

R 318.111 Definitions.

…….

(g) “Unmanned aircraft” means an aircraft remotely operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft, whether used for recreational, commercial, academic, or governmental purposes

R 318.146 Miscellaneous unlawful acts.

Rule 46. On lands under the jurisdiction of the commission, it is unlawful for a

person or persons to do any of the following:……….

(o) Use or operate an unmanned aircraft without proper written permission.


South Dakota Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of December 22, 2017

 22-21-1.   Trespassing to eavesdrop–Installation or use of unauthorized eavesdropping device–Drones. Any person who, except as authorized by law:
             (1)      Trespasses on property with intent to subject anyone to eavesdropping or other surveillance in a private place;
             (2)      Installs in any private place, without the consent of the person or persons entitled to privacy there, any device for observing, photographing, recording, amplifying, or broadcasting sounds or events in such place, or uses any such unauthorized installation;
             (3)      Intentionally uses a drone to photograph, record, or otherwise observe another person in a private place where the person has a reasonable expectation of privacy; or
             (4)      Lands a drone on the lands or waters of another resident provided the resident owns the land beneath the water body in its entirety without the owner’s consent, except in the case of forced landing and the owner or lessee of the drone will be liable for any damage resulting from a forced landing;
is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Subdivisions (2) and (3) do not apply to law enforcement officers, or to those acting under the direction of a law enforcement officer, while engaged in the performance of the officer’s lawful duties. These restrictions do not apply to a drone operator operating a drone for commercial or agricultural purposes pursuant to or in compliance with federal aviation administration regulations, authorizations, and exemptions nor do they apply to an emergency management worker operating a drone within the scope of the worker’s duties.

50-11-9.1. Certain unmanned aircraft exempt from registration. The provisions of §§ 50-11-8 and 50-11-9 do not apply to any unmanned aircraft system that weighs less than fifty-five pounds.

50-15-1.   Drone defined. For purposes of this chapter, the term, drone, means a powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. The vehicle may be expendable or recoverable.

50-15-2.   Compliance with federal requirements–Exemption from chapter. Any operation of a drone in the state shall comply with all applicable federal aviation administration requirements. Any drone operating under the authority of the Armed Forces of the United States, including the National Guard, is exempt from this chapter.

50-15-3.   Authorization required to operate drone over certain facilities–Violation as misdemeanor. No person may operate a drone over the grounds of a prison, correctional facility, jail, juvenile detention facility, or any military facility unless expressly authorized by the administrator thereof. A violation of this section is a Class 1 misdemeanor.

50-15-4. Prohibited delivery of contraband or controlled substance–Felony. Any person who uses a drone to deliver contraband or controlled substances to a state prison or other correctional facility is guilty of a Class 6 felony in addition to the penalty for the principal offense.


South Carolina Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of February 21, 2017

Fortunately, at the time of the writing of this article, there are no state level drone laws in South Carolina. Keep in mind there might be local laws that still apply. This article is only on drone specific state laws.

There are three bills that have been proposed (SB 498, HB 4425, and HB 4421)  and 2 bills have failed (HB 3415 and HB 3514).


Ohio Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of February 21, 2017

Fortunately, at the time of writing this article, there are no state level drone laws. There have been four bills have have been proposed and two that have failed. There could be drone laws at the local level which are beyond the scope of this article which is focused ONLY on state law.

The Ohio Department of Transportation has a UAS division.

The Ohio Legislature has created a Ohio aerospace and aviation technology committee.

122.98 Ohio aerospace and aviation technology committee.

(A) There is hereby created the Ohio aerospace and aviation technology committee, consisting of the following members:

(1) Three members of the senate, appointed by the president of the senate, not more than two of whom may be members of the same political party;

(2) Three members of the house of representatives, appointed by the speaker of the house of representatives, not more than two of whom may be members of the same political party;

(3) Fifteen members representing the aviation, aerospace, or technology industry, the military, or academia. One such member shall be appointed by the governor, and fourteen such members shall be appointed by majority vote of the six members representing the senate and house of representatives.

The legislative members of the committee shall be appointed not later than September 1, 2014, and the remaining members shall be appointed within ten days thereafter. The initial term of all members shall end on December 31, 2016. Thereafter, the term of all members shall end on the thirty-first day of December of the year following the year of appointment. Vacancies shall be filled in the manner of the original appointment.

The first legislator appointed to the committee by the speaker of the house of representatives after the effective date of H.B. 292 of the 130th general assembly shall serve as the first chairperson of the committee and shall serve until December 31, 2016. Every general assembly thereafter, the chairperson shall alternate between the first legislator appointed by the president of the senate and the first legislator appointed by the speaker of the house of representatives.

(B) The duties of the committee shall include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(1) Studying and developing comprehensive strategies to promote the aviation, aerospace, and technology industry throughout the state, including through the commercialization of aviation, aerospace, and technology products and ideas;

(2) Encouraging communication and resource-sharing among individuals and organizations involved in the aviation, aerospace, and technology industry, including business, the military, and academia;

(3) Promoting research and development in the aviation, aerospace, and technology industry, including research and development of unmanned aerial vehicles;

(4) Providing assistance related to military base realignment and closure.

(C) The Ohio aerospace and aviation council shall serve as an advisory council to the committee.

(D) The committee shall compile an annual report of its activities, findings, and recommendations and shall furnish a copy of the report to the governor, president of the senate, and speaker of the house of representatives not later than July 1, 2015, and the first day of July of each year thereafter.

Added by 130th General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 292, §1, eff. 9/17/2014.

Prior History: (Repealed by 129th General AssemblyFile No.39, SB 171, §2, eff. 6/30/2011.)

(Effective Date: 10-24-2001 .)


Wisconsin Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of February 21, 2017

Statute 29.083  Interference with hunting, fishing or trapping.

(1)  Definition. In this section, “activity associated with lawful hunting, fishing, or trapping” means travel, camping, scouting, target shooting, dog training, animal baiting or feeding, or other acts that are preparatory to lawful hunting, fishing, or trapping and that are done by a hunter, fisher, or trapper or by a member of a hunting, fishing, or trapping party.

(2) Prohibitions.

(a) No person may interfere or attempt to interfere with lawful hunting, fishing, or trapping with the intent to prevent the taking of a wild animal, or intentionally interfere with or intentionally attempt to interfere with an activity associated with lawful hunting, fishing, or trapping, by doing any of the following:

………..

8. Using a drone, as defined in s. 941.292 (1), to conduct any activity prohibited under subds. 1.to 7.

………

(4) Civil actions.

(a) A person who is adversely affected by, or who reasonably may be expected to be adversely affected by, conduct that is in violation of sub. (2) (a) may bring an action in circuit court for an injunction or damages or both.

(b) The circuit court may enter an injunction under ch. 813 against conduct in violation of sub. (2) (a) if the court determines any of the following:The defendant is threatening the conduct.

1. The defendant is threatening the conduct.

2. The defendant has engaged in the conduct in the past and that it is reasonable to expect that the defendant will engage in the conduct that will adversely affect the plaintiff in the future.

(c) The circuit court may award damages to the plaintiff if the defendant’s conduct in violation of sub. (2) (a) has adversely affected the plaintiff. The damages awarded may include punitive damages and any special damages. Special damages may include approval fees, travel costs, camping fees, costs for guides, and costs for equipment or supplies to the extent that the plaintiff did not receive the full value of any of these expenditures due to the unlawful conduct of the defendant.

History: 1989 a. 1901997 a. 248 s. 415; Stats. 1997 s. 29.083; 2015 a. 346.

The application of this section is limited to physical interference and does not violate the freedom of speech. State v. Bagley, 164 Wis. 2d 255474 N.W.2d 761 (Ct. App. 1991).

114.04 Flying and landing, limitations.

Subject to ss. 114.105 (3) and 175.55, and except as provided in ss. 114.045 and 942.10, flight of or in aircraft or spacecraft over the lands and waters of this state is lawful, unless at such a low altitude as to interfere with the then existing use to which the land or water, or the space over the land or water, is put by the owner, or unless so conducted as to be imminently dangerous or damaging to persons or property lawfully on the land or water beneath. The landing of an aircraft or spacecraft on the lands or waters of another, without the person’s consent, is unlawful, except in the case of a forced landing. For damages caused by a forced landing, however, the owner or lessee of the aircraft or spacecraft or the aeronaut or astronaut shall be liable, as provided in s. 114.05.

114.045 Limitation on the operation of drones.

(1) No person may operate a drone, as defined in s. 114.105 (1) (a), over a state correctional institution, as defined in s. 301.01 (4), including any grounds of the institution.

(2) Any person who violates sub. (1) may be required to forfeit not more than $5,000.

(3) A law enforcement officer investigating an alleged violation of sub. (1) shall seize and transfer to the department of corrections any photograph, motion picture other visual representation, or data that represents a visual image that was created or recorded by a drone during an alleged violation of sub. (1).

114.105  Local regulation. 

(1) In this section:

(a) Drone” means a powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. A drone may be expendable or recoverable.

(b)Political subdivision” means a city, village, town, or county.

(2) A political subdivision may adopt any ordinance in strict conformity with the provisions of this chapter and impose the same penalty for violation of any of its provisions except that an ordinance under this subsection may not provide for the suspension or revocation of pilot or aircraft licenses or certificates and may not provide for imprisonment except for failure to pay any fine which may be imposed.

(3)

(a) If a political subdivision determines that public safety requires that drone operation over an area under the jurisdiction of the political subdivision be limited, subject to par.

(b), the political subdivision may enact an ordinance designating the area as an area over which the operation of a drone is limited and imposing limitations on the operation of drones over the designated area. Subject to par. (b), an ordinance under this section may prohibit any operation of a drone over a designated area. (b) An ordinance under par. (a) may not apply to any of the following:

1. The operation of a drone by the state, an agency of the state, or a public safety agency, as defined in s. 256.35 (1) (g).

2. The operation of a drone with the permission of the owner of the property over which the drone is operated.

(c) If a political subdivision enacts an ordinance under par. (a), the political subdivision shall provide notice reasonably calculated to inform the public of the location of areas over which drone operation is limited. If the political subdivision produces a newsletter for its residents, the political subdivision shall provide notice of the areas affected by an ordinance under par. (a) in the newsletter. If the political subdivision maintains an Internet site, the political subdivision shall maintain a list of locations affected by an ordinance under par. (a) on the Internet site.

(d) A political subdivision may provide a forfeiture of not more than $2,500 for each violation of an ordinance under par. (a).

(4) No political subdivision may enact any ordinance governing aircraft or aeronautics or spacecraft or astronautics contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter or federal law.

(5) Every court in which a violation of an ordinance under this section is prosecuted shall make a written report of any conviction, including bail or appearance money forfeiture, to the federal aviation administration.

175.55  Use of drones restricted.

(1) In this section:

(a) “Drone” means a powered, aerial vehicle that carries or is equipped with a device that, in analog, digital, or other form, gathers, records, or transmits a sound or image, that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. A drone may be expendable or recoverable.

(b) “Wisconsin law enforcement agency” has the meaning given in s. 165.77 (1) (c) and includes the department of justice and a tribal law enforcement agency.

(2) No Wisconsin law enforcement agency may use a drone to gather evidence or other information in a criminal investigation from or at a place or location where an individual has a reasonable expectation of privacy without first obtaining a search warrant under s. 968.12. This subsection does not apply to the use of a drone in a public place or to assist in an active search and rescue operation, to locate an escaped prisoner, to surveil a place or location for the purpose of executing an arrest warrant, or if a law enforcement officer has reasonable suspicion to believe that the use of a drone is necessary to prevent imminent danger to an individual or to prevent imminent destruction of evidence.

History: 2013 a. 213.

941.292  Possession of a weaponized drone.

(1) In this section, “drone” means a powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. A drone may be expendable or recoverable.

(2) Whoever operates any weaponized drone is guilty of a Class H felony. This subsection does not apply to a member of the U.S. armed forces or national guard acting in his or her official capacity.

History: 2013 a. 213.

942.10  Use of a drone. 

Whoever uses a drone, as defined in s. 175.55 (1) (a), with the intent to photograph, record, or otherwise observe another individual in a place or location where the individual has a reasonable expectation of privacy is guilty of Class A misdemeanor. This section does not apply to a law enforcement officer authorized to use a drone pursuant to s. 175.55 (2).


Wyoming Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of February 21, 2017

Wyoming presently does not have any drone laws.

There have been at least 4 bills proposed, but they failed. I have placed those failed bills below for you to review.  Keep in mind that there might be local laws that apply but this article was only focusing on state level drone laws.

 

FAILED Bill HB0242 

FAILED Bill HB0030 

FAILED Bill HB0105

FAILED Bill HB0018


West Virginia Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of February 21, 2017

West Virginia Code §20-2-5. Unlawful methods of hunting and fishing and other unlawful acts.

Except as authorized by the director or by law, it is unlawful at any time for any person to:

……….

(4) Hunt, take, kill, wound or shoot at wild animals or wild birds from an airplane or other airborne conveyance, a drone or other unmanned aircraft, an automobile or other land conveyance, or from a motor-driven water conveyance;

(5) Use a drone or other unmanned aircraft to hunt, take or kill a wild bird or wild animal, or to use a drone or other unmanned aircraft to drive or herd any wild bird or wild animal for the purposes of hunting, trapping or killing;

 


Washington Drone Laws from Attorney & Pilot

NOTICE: This article is for information purposes only!  This article is ONLY for state laws that are DRONE specific. Local laws and “aircraft” related laws could potentially apply and were outside of the focus of this article. It might NOT be up to date. You should seek out a competent attorney licensed in the state you are interested in before operating.

Researching? I created a page on Drone Laws(federal, state, & international) and another on only US drone laws by state.

 Current as of February 21, 2017

Fortunately, at the time of the writing of this article, there are no state level drone laws in the state of Washington. Keep in mind the focus of this article is only at the state lever. Local drone laws could be in effect.

This might change as Seattle has become tired of drones. Recently a man was sentenced to 30 days in jail by a judge for flying his drone in a careless and reckless manner which resulted in a woman being injured. Around the same time, a man crashed his drone into a Ferris wheel and another man crashed his drone into the Space Needle.

At least 7 bills have been proposed with two failing to gain traction.

Privacy Guidelines

The Chief Privacy Officer of the Washington Office of Privacy and Data Protection issued some guidelines for unmanned aircraft systems for policy makers and stakeholders as they develop policy proposals.

Here are the guidelines.

1. Definition of “Drones”—should apply to unmanned aerial vehicles controlled by a remote operator. Sample definition: “An unmanned aircraft that is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.”
2. Law Enforcement and Respect for Civil Rights.

A. Fourth Amendment requirements must apply to the use of evidence derived from drone surveillance. This is grounded on probable cause and the need to obtain a warrant in advance of use for law enforcement purposes, if such evidence is to be introduced in a court of law.
B. Drones should not be used to monitor activities protected by the First Amendment or lawful exercise of other Constitutional rights.
C. Law enforcement personnel should balance use of drones against other means of gathering information in a particular investigative need, assessing whether such alternative means are less intrusive than the deployment of drones.

3. Purpose of Use—the purpose of use of a particular flight should be recorded and maintained by the applicable agency.

A. Drones should only be used in connection with properly authorized investigations and activities, unless they are authorized for on-going use by documented Agency policy.
B. Exceptions to stating a purpose of use in advance of actual use can be made for emergencies such as natural disasters, terrorism and “hot pursuit” of crimes.
C. Data collected by drones must be subject to existing state and federal laws and regulations regarding the privacy of personal information.

4. Data Minimization—the video images and other data derived from surveillance applications should be minimized in terms of review and retention, consistent with state records retention requirements. Only data pertaining to the original purpose of the drone flight should be retained. Agencies should set retention schedules consistent with the fulfillment of the original purpose of the drone flight.

5. Federal Law

A. FAA regulations regarding registration of drones, safety and no-drone zones must be followed.
B. The state acknowledges existing “open view” doctrines, as set forth by the Supreme Court and other legal authorities.

6. Policy Management

A. Drone guidelines and agency implementation should be reviewed annually to keep up with technology and respond to citizen concerns. Such review should take place within any agency that operates drones.
B. Drone guidelines should be published in print and online by each agency. OCIO will retain the guidelines in a central location.
C. The state should conduct public education and outreach regarding drone policies and operations by state agencies.
D. The state should not share drone data with the federal agencies without judicial authorization or review.
E. The state should not share drone data with local governments or between state agencies, unless such sharing is specified within the original purpose of the deployment

Washington Department of Transportation

Washington DOT uses unmanned aircraft they even published a large paper on their use.

Washington State Department of Commerce Office of Aerospace

The Office of Aerospace led the first ever Unmanned Systems Industry Council with multiple drone companies on it. AUVSI’s Cascade Chapter worked with the Office to advocate for the use of commercial drones.